Call for Abstract

10th International Congress on Clinical Virology, will be organized around the theme “Emerging new technologies in clinical virology”

Clinical Virology 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Clinical Virology 2017

Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks.

Register now for the conference by choosing an appropriate package suitable to you.

The Global Virology Market Overview reported an aggregate of $1485.02 million in 2013 and it is estimated to reach $1932.8 million by the year 2018 at a CAGR of about 5.6%. The market growth of virology is remarkable in North America followed by Europe with a predicted significant CAGR growth of about 7% through the forecast period of 2016-2021 due to advancements in the technological development of rapid, futuristic and portable diagnostic tools and tests owing to the ever-improving healthcare infrastructure, convenience and affordability of these diagnostic tests. Hospitals, Research laboratories and other research centers hold 50% stakes in the global virology market and this proclivity is to continue through the year 2025.

Virology deals with the study of infectious agents like viruses, viral taxonomy, virulence, viral cultures and genetics. It is a significant part of both microbiology and pathology; but being a part of these applied sciences, the discipline of virology is in itself a huge field with its own sub-fields primarily due to advances in the chemical, physical and biological sciences and they gradually became a means to probe various underlying biochemical processes of cells.

Consistently viruses have always been perceived antagonistically as being liable for diseases to be either controlled or annihilated. However, due to advances and understanding of the various processes, it has been found that the viruses also have specific beneficial characteristics that can be exploited for a myriad of objectives. 

  • Track 1-1Structure-based Virus Classification
  • Track 1-2Viroids and Satellites
  • Track 1-3Prions and Defective Interfering Particles
  • Track 1-4Biological Classification

According to the CTMS (Clinical Trial Management System) which predicted the Global Market Overview, 2014-2019, the market which was priced at $844 million in 2013, will grow at a CAGR of 14% by 2019 and will worth an envisaged $1,848.5 million.

Viral pathogenesis is attaining of the disease in the host by viruses gradually. Factors that determine the transmission, viral multiplication, disease/infection development involve complex, intricate and potent reciprocity between the viral agent and the inclined host. Viruses are capable of causing a disease after contravening the host's elementary physical and natural protective barriers, evading all- local, tissue, and immune defenses that are spread across the host’s body and destroy cells directly or indirectly by the host’s immune and inflammatory responses. Viral pathogenesis is categorized into 7 stages, 1. Transmission  & entry of the virus into the host, 2. Spread of the viral agent in the host, 3. Tropism,  4.  Virulence, 5.  Paradigm of viral infections and diseases , 6.  Host factors,  and  7.  Host defenses. 

Infection in a given population are categorized into endemic – in which the infection is present constantly but at a low level at a specific geographical location; epidemic – in which the infection has a greater impact on a population of a specific geographical area and pandemic – in which the infections spread globally and have a higher impact throughout world. Spread of these infections can either be direct – respiratory, water, food and other methods or indirect - involving a vector.

Several quantitative proposals are suggested in terms of epidemiology- such as infectivity, virulence, incidence, disease index, and prevalence. Infectivity is described as the frequency and the rate of the infection transmittance measure after the contact between a virus and an inclined host. Virulence is defined as the aggregate of number of fatalities or extreme diseased cases per total number of cases in the (global) area. Number of new infections within a specified period reflecting the total affected % of population is Incidence. Disease index is the number of indisposed divided by total number of infected people & the rate of cases that exist in a population who are at risk during a pre-defined or the forecasted period is called Prevalence.

  • Track 2-1Vector borne Infections
  • Track 2-2Host-Virus Interactions
  • Track 2-3Host Immune factors & Defences
  • Track 2-4Pathogenic mechanisms
  • Track 2-5Infectivity & prevalance
  • Track 2-6Disease index and Infectivity
  • Track 2-7Emerging Viruses
  • Track 2-8Countermeasures

The global Anatomical Pathology and the Tissue Diagnostics market are predicted to grow at a CAGR of approximately 6.97% between the forecast period of 2013 and 2018, to acquire net worth of $3,924.01 Million by 2018.

Anatomical Pathology is typically concerned with the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunological & molecular probing of organs and tissues to diagnose an infection or a disease. In the recent times, surgical pathology has emerged eminently- we have seen the advancement in form of antecedent histological examination of diseases/affected parts, called autopsy to a more novel and neoteric practice focused on the diagnosis & prognosis to pilot treatment in oncology. Its advanced founder is the Italian scientist Giovan Battista Morgagni. The microscopic examination of probable infected specimens like tissue, cells, bodily fluids and secretions for diagnosis, omission, and scrutinizing of disease in the specimen is all a part of the Anatomical Pathology. The use of novel molecular tests for diagnosing viral infections is on the rise, because of the enhanced sensitivity and rapid result outcome capability of these methods. A myriad of high-end molecular techniques are now available for the identification and quantification of viruses. Molecular diagnostic tools in viral testing have measured a swift progress during recent years and have been adapted by several laboratories due to the ease and convenience in the diagnosis of viruses. These molecular techniques have greatly reduced the use of viral culture based methods and numerous serological assays in diagnosing the infectious viruses in the laboratory. Some of the advanced molecular techniques like Amplified & Non-Amplified Nucleic Acid Techniques, Microarrays, PCR based Techniques, and Target Amplification Techniques are typically employed in diagnosing a viral infection.

  • Track 3-1Pathological Organs and Tissues
  • Track 3-2Microscopic and Macroscopic examination
  • Track 3-3Techniques involved in cell culture
  • Track 3-4Developing assays in diagnosis of infectious viruses

The Global Tissue Diagnostics Market overview was valued at $3,202.5 Million in 2015 and is envisaged to reach $4,471.1 Million by 2020 growing at a remarkable CAGR of about 6.9% in the forecast period of 2015 to 2020. The tissue diagnostics market heralds remarkable and affluent growth potential from 2015 with the major factor that drives the growth is the increasing ubiquity of cancer; while on the other hand, the high degree of consolidation, inflexible regulatory requirements, and dearth of budgets are exorbitating the global growth of this market. The tissue diagnostics categorized into immunohistochemistry (IHC), digital pathology, in-situ hybridization, workflow, and histo-staining. In 2015, the immunohistochemistry accounted for the largest stake in the global tissue diagnostics market with the technology segment of Tissue diagnostics mainly driven by IVD (in vitro diagnostics).

Immunohistochemistry, abbreviated as IHC is a potent method in localizing unambiguous antigens present in the Formalin Fixed, Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) tissues/ specimens predicated on the antigen–antibody interactions. The FFPE technique is extensively used in various research and diagnostics concerning dermatological and histological specimens; IHC’s applications expand continually primarily because of its convenience, reliability, and versatility. In IHC an antigen–antibody complex is explored through the light microscopy. The elementary advantage of IHC over immunofluorescence is the counterstaining which allows the visibility of the morphology of tissue around the antigen with hematoxylin. Results of stained markers are recorded semi-quantitatively and apparently have paramount diagnostic and prognostic implications for skin tumors, lymphoma, and also in the detection of infectious microorganisms in the infected specimens. IHC staining is largely used in the diagnosis of cancerous cells. IHC is also employed in studying and understanding of the distribution and localization of biomarkers and various characteristically expressed proteins in a biological tissue.

  • Track 4-1IHC in Association with Virology
  • Track 4-2Immune system response againsts viral infections
  • Track 4-3 IHC in the diagnosis of cancerous cells
  • Track 4-4The distribution and localization of Biomarkers
  • Track 4-5IHC in cancer

Immunopathology is an immune response concorded when a host is infected by a virus or a viral agent and in often cases can also cause fatalities. The forming of immune complexes in tissues induces inflammation. Circulating immune complexes are usually harmless, but when deposited in tissues can evoke glomerulonephritis, arthritis and vasculitis. Cytotoxic T cells display quite influential effects in vitro, but have very rarely caused acute tissue affliction/damage in vivo. Disruption of cells by antibody-complement complex by antibodies and K cells or even by NK cells portrays a murky role in viral pathology. Delayed hypersensitive T cells are more crucial in immunopathology primarily as they induce inflammation, cause cell infiltration and invoke macrophage-mediated damage to the infected cells. Viral immunopathology is extremely pre-eminent in specific chronic diseases of obscured etiology. 

  • Track 5-1Inflammation
  • Track 5-2Immune responses in Veterinary
  • Track 5-3Immune responses in humans
  • Track 5-4Infection

Diagnostics market is still incipient and is predicted to reach $3.5 billion by 2020 from the radical value of $1.1 billion, growing at a CAGR of about 20% during the predicted period of 2014 to 2020. The Global Diagnostic Market is categorized based on indication, geography and technology.  The crucial drivers for this market are the discovery and increase in utilization and study of biomarkers and co-development of drugs and various therapies corresponding to these diagnostics. Nevertheless, the costs pertinent with drug development could contravene the growth of diagnostic market. Scope for this market prevails in progressing diagnostics for various infectious and hereditary conditions.

Diagnostic virology is now a crux in pathology and in medical practice. Various approaches are being optimized for the laboratory diagnosis of viral infections, antigen and nucleic acid detection, and serology. The technique of viral culturing is dwindling as novel immunological and molecular tests detect and provide accurate and more rapid results. In the last decade, both qualitative and the quantitative nucleic acid detection techniques has had an extensive impact on viral diagnostics. With advances in self-regulating nucleic-acid sample isolation methods, and real-time detection techniques; a new inception of assays for clinically important viruses is being developed. These technological enhancements potentially generate results within a short time interval. Moreover, the capability of these state-of-the-art technologies characterizes viruses efficiently by the process of sequencing thereby opening new probabilities for further epidemiological studies. 

  • Track 6-1Nucleic acid detection in Viral infections
  • Track 6-2Molecular techniques
  • Track 6-3Quality and infection control
  • Track 6-4Antiviral agents

Due to the extensive infection index of HCV and necessity for the progressive and enhanced therapies, there are a varied of assessments estimating that the global market for HCV is bound to reach $20 billion perennially by the end of this decade.

Hepatitis is a liver inflammation characterized by presence of inflammatory cells in the tissues and can be either acute or chronic, caused by viruses belonging to different families, other than Hepatitis viruses- Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex, Yellow fever and Epstein–Barr virus. Transmission of Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus is by enteral routes while Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Hepatitis D virus is by Parenteral routes. 

  • Track 7-1Pathophysiology and Etiology of hepatitis virus
  • Track 7-2Treatment
  • Track 7-3Types of Hepatitis
  • Track 7-4ELISA test
  • Track 7-5Hepatitis Virus entry by enteral route
  • Track 7-6Hepatitis Virus entry by parenteral route

 The global market for biology of sexually transmitted diseases was valued at $33.3 billion in 2012 and the total market net worth is envisaged to reach $52 billion in 2017 at a CAGR of about 9.3%.

STDs, or rather STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections) hold a crucial global health prominence because of their overwhelming - emotional, mental and physical impact on women and in infants. Infections with few STDs can accentuate the risk of contracting and transmitting HIV and modify the course of the disease progression. Besides, STDs can also cause chronic health implications, notably in women and infants. Some of the health implications of STDs comprises of cervical cancer, infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal or ectopic pregnancy and perinatal or congenital infections in infants born to indisposed mothers. A sexually transmitted disease (STD), also called venereal diseases (VD), is a disease which typically transmits through some form of sexual contact, but not necessarily only this mode of transmission. STDs can also be transmitted from infected blood transfusion, from mother to child or also through transmission of bodily fluids, but commonly by sex, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. As most STIs initially are asymptomatic, which result in an augmented outcome of transmitting the disease to others. Most STIs are treatable or curable; but herpes, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, and HPV are only treatable but not curable. 

  • Track 8-1Contraction and Transmission of STD
  • Track 8-2Viral cause of STD
  • Track 8-3Health complications in Male and female
  • Track 8-4Countermeasures and Prevention

The global market for Hemorrhagic Fever is envisaged to reach $56 million by 2020 at a remarkable CAGR of about 95.2% in the forecast period of 2015-2020.

Viral hemorrhagic fevers, abbreviated as VHFs are an aggregate of illnesses elicited by four families of viruses – Ebola, Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. VHFs affect organs, damage blood vessels, and disturbs the body's competence to regulate itself; while some VHFs cause only mild fever, but others, for instance, Ebola or Marburg, are fatal. VHFs are global; while some are specific to the areas where animal vectors are in abundance. 

  • Track 9-1Causes of hemorrhagic
  • Track 9-2Ebola hemorrhagic fever
  • Track 9-3Marburg hemorrhagic fever
  • Track 9-4Lassa fever
  • Track 9-5Yellow fever

The global Tumor Virology Market was at its remarkable at $14.99 billion and is envisaged to reach around $35 billion by 2018, developing at a significant CAGR of 18.5% in the predicted period of 2013 to 2018.

Viruses that cause or initiate cancers are called oncoviruses or oncornaviruses- as it was initially thought that only viruses with RNA origin cause cancers- but it now denotes any virus with either a DNA or a RNA genome initiating cancer and is now analogous to tumor virus or cancer virus. Multitude human and animal viruses generally do not evoke cancer because of archaic co-evolution between virus and humans.

World Health Organization's (WHO) -  International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), in 2002 reported that approximately 17.8% of all human cancers were infection-initiated, with 11.9% of them being caused by viruses. Although these cancers can be easily prevented through vaccination, but only if diagnosed early with simple blood tests, and are then treated with less-toxic antivirals. In 1908, Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang from the University of Copenhagen, first established that avian sarcoma leukosis virus can be passed on even after cell-free filtration to susceptible chickens inducing leukemia. In 1910, Peyton Rous at Rockefeller continued Olaf Bang and Vilhelm Ellerman experiment to show filtrated cell-free transmission of sarcoma to susceptible chickens. While in 1964 Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr identified the cardinal human oncovirus from Burkitt lymphoma cells, which was identified as a herpesvirus, and typically called Epstein - Barr virus or EBV. 

  • Track 10-1Cancer origins in Virology
  • Track 10-2Tumor viruses and types
  • Track 10-3Treatment
  • Track 10-4Advanced techniques in Tumor therapy

Viral diseases/infections of the oral cavity, oral mucosa and perioral regions are generally encountered by dentists and have not received the required recognition until recently and viruses are both - ulcerogenic and the tumorigenic agents of human oral cavity. The plethora of mammalian viruses in the lesions seen in periodontitis proposes that viruses play a significant role in oral diseases than earlier recognized. One of the most crucial target of oral microbiology in future would be to arbitrate the diversity, magnitude, frequency, pathogenicity, treatment and prognosis of oral viruses and the infections they cause.

Human Herpes virus (HHV) and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) are liable for the most prevalent primary viral infections; with HPV having received crucial scrutiny, as high-risk strains of HPV have been associated with few cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma. However there are numerous other viruses that can cause oral infections in the oral cavity. Some of the viruses that are associated with oral cavity diseases/infections are Cox Sackie Virus, HHV, HPV, Measles Virus, Mumps Virus and Rubella Virus.  

  • Track 11-1Types of Oral Infections
  • Track 11-2Differential diagnosis of viral Oral infections
  • Track 11-3Oral infection by herpes simplex Virus
  • Track 11-4Oral infections by cytomegalovirus
  • Track 11-5Hand, foot &mouth disease
  • Track 11-6Oral infection by Wart- HPV ( Human papillomavirus )
  • Track 11-7Oral infections by Coxsackie virus (cox)
  • Track 11-8Oral infections by Measles , Mums and Rubella virus ( MMR )
  • Track 11-9Treatment

Viral Outbreaks generally are pandemic, mostly transmitted via tourists, especially air travelers. These outbreaks have a very serious and hard impact on the global economy. These impacts can be of short term and long term. These impacts sometimes are so severe that it causes about 80% financial impact globally; in the recent Ebola outbreak in 2015, the short term impact was an estimated $359 million in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia alone, which were the severe worst it countries, with the long term impact being $809 million.

Infectious diseases pose a severe threat to global population health and are majorly devastating for the tropical countries as these infectious agents can easily thrive on those climatic conditions. The ease of international travel is one of the primary cause that is liable for transmission of these infectious agents from tropical to temperate and in some cases, also to the polar zones of the world; mainly because of global warming. 

  • Track 12-1Major causes for Outbreak of Viral infections
  • Track 12-2Flu Virus
  • Track 12-3Ebola virus
  • Track 12-4Zika virus
  • Track 12-5Investigations in Outbreak
  • Track 12-6Drug development in case of outbreaks

Multiple pathogens sometimes coexist resulting in polyparasitism, which leads to augmented infectivity and diseased condition, modified pathogen load, and emphasis in pathogenesis. For instance, Burkitt's lymphoma is commonly found in regions with high malarial transmittance and it is reported that malaria-induced immune response is linked with the evolution of lymphomas.  These organisms are termed opportunistic infectious agents, and are liable for high morbidity and mortality rates. HIV is one of the opportunistic organisms with high potential to interact with other infectious organisms like parasitic, viral, fungal, and bacterial agents. 

  • Track 13-1Polyparasitism
  • Track 13-2Burkitts Lymphoma
  • Track 13-3opportunistic Infectious Pathogens
  • Track 13-4Viral infections with fungi
  • Track 13-5Viral infections with Bacteria

The global market overview of antiviral drugs, therapies and vaccines is categorized depending on antivirals like Hepatitis-C, HIV , Herpes, Hepatitis-B, Influenza and other antivirals. Some of the crucial aspects that drive the antiviral markets are advances in R&D activities, augmentation in healthcare concerns, awareness and expenditure, increased pervasiveness of ominous viral diseases. According to the market reports, the global antiviral industry- therapies, drugs and vaccines was net worth $4.1 billion for 2013, and it is estimated to reach nearly $6 billion in 2018, growing at a CAGR of 8% in the forecast period of 2013-2018.

Antiviral drugs and vaccines are a class of antimicrobials, which also includes antibiotics and drugs which are solely monoclonal antibodies. Unlike antibacterials, most antivirals are relatively harmless and can be used to treat numerous viral infections. 

  • Track 14-1Classification of viral infections
  • Track 14-2HIV- AIDS
  • Track 14-3Advanced techonlogies in vaccines

The Global Infectious Virology Market reported the net worth of $1485.02 million in 2013 and is predicted to reach $1932.8 million by 2018, growing at a CAGR of about 5.6 and is  predicted to grow with a remarkable CAGR growth of about 7% through the forecast period of 2016-2021.

Clinical course of an infection is the behavioral pattern of a virus inside a host after the onset of the infection and how it evolves overtime. It may be per-acute, acute, sub-acute, chronic or intermittent. A deep-rooted knowledge on the clinical Course is essential to understand the disease and the behavioral pattern of the viral agent and to hinder it’s growth which would ultimately lead in hindering the spread of the infection. 

  • Track 15-1Symptoms and diagnosis
  • Track 15-2Dengue shock syndrome
  • Track 15-3Recognition of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
  • Track 15-4Transmission and Epidemology

The Universal Therapeutic Industry at a predicted worth of $1485.02 million in 2013 is expected to reach $1932.8 million by 2018 growing at a CAGR of 5.6%.

Virotherapy is a sub-field of Virology and therapeutics, which uses biotechnology as a means to convert viruses into required therapeutic agents by reprogramming the genome and other metabolic pathways of viruses to treat diseases. There are 3 categories of virotherapy as of now:
1. Anti-cancer oncolytic viruses, 
2. Viral vectors for gene therapy and
3. Viral immunotherapy.

  • Track 16-1Categories in Virotherapy
  • Track 16-2Required therapeutic agents
  • Track 16-3Viral vectors for gene therapy
  • Track 16-4Newly developed therapies for various viruses

Viral Bionanotechnology is still a nascent field, but it is gradually gaining popularity, especially with the automatic parallel formation of viral building blocks is in the hand’s reach after the recent progress of chip-based DNA manipulation to the cell-cultured techniques. The researchers are on the verge of accomplishing the generation of virus-based nanoparticles, multi-layered arrays & hybrid virus networks by incorporation of quantum dots and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). They are also researching the use of virus-like protein cages to form novel materials that can be safely and cost-effectively used for biomedical applications such as biomedical imaging.

Researchers commonly use viruses as the means of vectors to introduce genes into the host cells and typically also as a carrier in gene therapy, after having genetically modified to carry out the activities of a normal human DNA, they also are capable of delivering therapeutic genes to the target cells. Present trends in nanobiotechnology is sure to take virus nanobiotechnology to new heights; Viruses are regarded as organic nanoparticles as  their surface has definite tools which are capable of crossing the barriers of the host cells. These impressive and massive approaches of life-sciences in association with chemistry, physics and engineering have become the foundation of modern bio-physical medicine and are opening a wide spectrum of approaches in all these pure and applied fields. 

  • Track 17-1History & Evolution of Viruses in Nanobiotechnology
  • Track 17-2Applications of Plant Viruses in Nanobiotechnology
  • Track 17-3Virus detections by using Nanobiotechnology
  • Track 17-4Viruses as nanomaterials
  • Track 17-5Nano scaffolds
  • Track 17-6Problems arising due to use of Viruses in Nanobiotechnology

The global stem cell therapy industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of 39.5% from 2015 to 2020 to reach an estimated $330million by 2020; while the global virology market is expected to reach $1932.8 million by 2018, growing at a CAGR of 5.6%.

Stem cell therapy, one of the widely used therapies and the most researched field in virology uses stem cells to impede a disease or an infection. Bone marrow transplantation is largely executed stem cell therapy. Clinical virology is an intermediary field of medicine comprising of isolating and/or characterizing viruses responsible for various human pathologies by either direct or indirect approaches

  • Track 18-1Gene Theray
  • Track 18-2Virus vector systems
  • Track 18-3Cancer prevention
  • Track 18-4Virus directed enzyme pro drug therapy (VDEPT)
  • Track 18-5Control of Pathogens Viruses in Agriculture & Medicine
  • Track 18-6Bacteriophage Therapy
  • Track 18-7Complication arising in beneficial applications of Viruses

The global animal healthcare market was esteemed at USD 27,861.2 million in 2013 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.1% from 2014 to 2019, to achieve an expected estimation of USD 41,929.1 million in 2019.

Veterinary virology is the investigation of viruses in animals. It is a critical branch of Veterinary medicine. An emerging virus is a term connected to a new found virus, one that is increasing in occurrence or with the possibility to increment in rate. Zoonotic diseases /contamination's are those which can be actually transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. Prion disease represents to a group of conditions that influence the nervous system in humans and animals. 

The agricultural inoculants industry when quoted in appraisal is envisaged to reach about $398.56 million by the year 2019, at a CAGR of about 9.5% from 2014.

The epidemiology of plant virus diseases obligates the cyclical development of virus diseases visceral to plant populace in time and expanse. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus that infects an extensive expanse of plants, principally tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae. Mycology is the field of biology which accords with the study and research on fungi, constituting their genetic, biochemical properties, taxonomy & their use to humans as a reservoir for tinder, medicine, wine and various entheogens, as well as the perils like poisoning/noxiousity or infection. Viruses exist as obligate intracellular parasites and hence they ought to accomplish unambiguous approaches of transmission, between hosts, in order to endure. 75% of plant viruses have genomes that compose single stranded RNA (ssRNA). 65% of plant viruses have +ssRNA, in essence that they are in the same sense proclivity as messenger RNA but 10% have -ssRNA, in essence they ought to be converted to +ssRNA precedently to being translated. 5% are double stranded RNA and so can be promptly translated as +ssRNA viruses.

 

 Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles.In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Marine viruses have important roles  in microbial mortality,gene transfer,metabolic reprogramming and biogeochemical cycling.