Human Viruses in Water and Virus Pollution

Waterborne enteric Viruses belongs to such as reovirus, rotavirus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A virus,  Norwalk virus, astrovirus, calicivirus, Snow Mountain agent, small round structured virus,  adenovirus strains 3, 7, 40, and 41 are threatening not only animal health also to mankind’s health. Extensive research has documented the risk of infectious viruses, are of host specific those are of cause wide range of diseases such as ocular and respiratory infections to gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and aseptic meningitis; in almost living beings from contact with contaminated water, current methods that which is bacterial indicator base of evaluation quality of water, are often ineffectual proxies for infectious viruses. RNA viruses are of causing gastroenteritis with diarrhea and/or vomiting, fever. Rotavirus is causative agent for gastroenteritis. With progressive molecular analysis, infectious viruses from key host groups should be targeted directly by using either PCR amplification or hybridization with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. Analysis which provides information about multispecies to control and determine, based on loading and exposure of infectious virus to evaluate potential risks to animal health and could indicate the potential for the presence of other zoonotic infectious organisms. Need to be better understanding of prevalence and environmental distribution of nonhuman enteric viruses, emerging of advanced sensitive methods for specific analysis will facilitates the utilisation of microbes for library independent source tracking and assessment tools for water quality.

  • Most-Probable-Number (MPN)–PCR
  • Nitrocellulose enzyme immune-sorbent assay (NC-EIA)
  • Plaque forming units (PFU)
  • RT-PCR
  • ELISA
  • Hybridization or antibody-based assays
  • Gene chips
  • Docking proteins, antibodies, and genetic sequences

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